IntroductionThis article shows how to securely propagate a user identity to a portlet, have this identity asserted and authorized to view the portlet.
WSRP (Web Services Remote Portlets) are web services. In Oracle Fusion Middleware, the way of enabling identity propagation and authentication is via OWSM (Oracle Web Services Manager) policies. The concept is no different that securing any regular web service.
Portlets authorization is handled by the OPSS (Oracle Platform Security Services) layer once authentication is done.
Note: What follows has been implemented in Oracle Fusion Middleware 11g PS1 stack (JDeveloper, WLS, Web Center, OWSM and OPSS)
OWSM policiesOWSM is the component that implements web services security and allows for runtime enforcement and declarative policy attachment within Oracle Fusion Middleware.
OWSM provides policies for different types of use case scenarios. For example, there are policies supporting SAML token profile, kerberos, WSS1.0, SSL, etc. I will soon write an article covering OWSM in detail.
For WSRP, let’s pick a SAML token profile with WSS1.0. It basically means that the portlet will require a SAML token in the incoming SOAP header and the whole message will be digitally signed and encrypted according to WSS1.0 standards.
On the portlet producer side, we’ll attach wss10_saml_token_with_message_protection_service_policy. And on the consumer side, we’ll attach wss10_saml_token_with_message_protection_client_policy.
The policy attached to the consumer adds the SAML token to the SOAP header and performs message signing/encryption. The policy attached to the provider verifies the signature, decrypts the message, retrieve the SAML token and delegates the assertion to the OPSS layer, which verifies its validity against the configured identity store.
Securing the Producer
AuthenticationThe policy wss10_saml_token_with_message_protection_service_policy needs to be attached to the portlet producer. Here I will show how to do it by updating oracle-webservices.xml. Do notice this can also be accomplished via Oracle Enterprise Manager.
oracle-webservices.xml is a packaging-time artifact, meaning it is not available in JDeveloper during design-time. Therefore, to edit the file, first deploy your application to an ear file, extract the file, update it and repackage it into the ear file.
The update itself is very simple. Look for port-component name=”WSRP_v2_Markup_Service” and add the highlighted snippet shown below:
<port-component name="WSRP_v2_Markup_Service" style="document"
<!-- start:deployment time generated info -->
<service-qname namespaceURI="urn:oasis:names:tc:wsrp:v2:wsdl" localpart="WSRP_v2_Service"/>
<!-- end:deployment time generated info -->
Note: The portlet producer application needs to be deployed in order to be called by consumers. You cannot “Click & Run” a secured portlet application from JDeveloper.
Key store and Credential store configurationThis is a necessary step only because the OWSM policies we’re using require message-level protection.
Both key store and credential store are WLS domain wide artifacts and WLS expects them to be found under $DOMAIN_HOME/config/fmwconfig folder.
In a nutshell, the key store contains the signing and encryption keys used to sign/encrypt/decrypt messages. Each key and the key store itself are password protected. They are also referred by an alias. These aliases and the corresponding passwords are stored in the credential store. When access to key store is required, the credential store is first queried for the necessary aliases and passwords.
Key store contentsThe key store is created by using JDK’s keytool command. Assuming JDK is on your $PATH, type keytool in a command prompt and you will see the command options.
To list the contents of the key store, type:
keytool –list –v –keystore <keystore_filename> -storepass <keystore password>
How to create a certificate keyIn order to protect the symmetric key used to actually encrypt the SOAP message, we need a PKI certificate in the key store. For the sake of this example, let's have this certificate under an alias called “orakey”, with password equals to “welcome1”.
keytool -genkeypair -keyalg RSA -alias orakey -keypass welcome1 -keystore default-keystore.jks -storepass welcome1 -validity 3600
Note: JDK 6 is required to generate a key store compatible with OWSM in FMW 11g.
Credential store contentsA credential store is split into maps. Each map contains a set of keys. Each key points to the actual credential. The aliases created in the key store must have a corresponding credential in the credential store. For example, if we have named our alias as “orakey” in the key store, there must be a credential named “orakey” in the credential store. Such credential is pointed by a predefined key names.
For OWSM, these key names are sign-csf-key and enc-csf-key, which are used to sign and encrypt/decrypt messages. Another important key is keystore-csf-key, which holds the key store alias and password and is used to open the key store.
OWSM uses a predefined credential map named oracle.wsm.security.
How to populate the credential storeThe credential store can be populated through WLST or Oracle Enterprise Manager.
In WLST, execute these online commands:
wls:/DefaultDomain/serverConfig> createCred(map="oracle.wsm.security", key="keystore-csf-key", user="owsm", password="welcome1", desc="Keystore key")
wls:/DefaultDomain/serverConfig> createCred(map="oracle.wsm.security", key="enc-csf-key", user="orakey", password="welcome1", desc="Encryption key")
wls:/DefaultDomain/serverConfig> createCred(map="oracle.wsm.security", key="sign-csf-key", user="orakey", password="welcome1", desc="Signing key")
Such commands update your domain level credential store. Normally, it corresponds to cwallet.sso under $DOMAIN_HOME/config/fmwconfig.
Verifying key store and credential store configuration in jps-config.xmlOpen jps-config.xml located at $DOMAIN_HOME/config/fmwconfig and check whether the following entry exists. This should be out of box configured.
<serviceInstance location="./" provider="credstoressp" name="credstore">
<description>File Based Credential Store Service Instance</description>
<serviceInstance name="keystore" provider="keystore.provider" location="./default-keystore.jks">
<description>Default JPS Keystore Service</description>
<property name="keystore.type" value="JKS"/>
<property name="keystore.csf.map" value="oracle.wsm.security"/>
<property name="keystore.pass.csf.key" value="keystore-csf-key"/>
<property name="keystore.sig.csf.key" value="sign-csf-key"/>
<property name="keystore.enc.csf.key" value="enc-csf-key"/>
Also, make sure the “default” context references the key store and credential store service instances above:
Note: If this configuration is already in place, you don’t need to restart your WLS domain. Otherwise, make the changes and restart your WLS domain.
AuthorizationPortlets authorization is delegated to OPSS layer, i.e., the decision whether or not a portlet is available to a user is done against the OPSS policy store. Portlets are just one way of exposing local ADF task flows to remote applications. There’s a component called portlet brigde that is responsible for providing the glue between portlets and task flows. It basically makes possible exposing a task flow as a portlet.
In the example below, the policy store is file-based. Normally it is represented by system-jazn-data.xml located under $DOMAIN_HOME/config/fmwconfig folder. That can be easily changed to be and LDAP-based one.
Once the right task flow permissions are already in place in the policy store, there’s only one more permission that needs to be added, and it should be granted to the authenticated-role:
Here’s an example of a complete set of grants required for portlet authorization. In the example, the propagated user must be granted approle1 application role in order to view the portlet (assuming /WEB-INF/my-task-flow.xml#my-task-flow is taskflow exposed as a portlet).
Securing the ConsumerSecuring a portlet consumer basically means enabling identity propagation. This is done during portlet producer registration in JDeveloper. When doing it, make sure you select/enter the right information in step 5 at WSRP Portlet Producer Registration wizard, as shown below:
Note: the configuration made here is written to connections.xml.
Key store and Credential store configurationWithin the portlet consumer WLS domain, both key store and credential store can be the same used by the portlet producer. Have them at $DOMAIN_HOME/config/fmwconfig, as explained previously.
It is true we have a potential security issue here, since the certificates used by WSS are the same across WLS domains, and I’ll cover how to harden it in a next article.